- Importance of training and development:
- Advantages of training and development:
- Training and Development Process:
- Succession Planning:
Training and Development is a component of an organization and human resource management, that focuses on increasing the performance of individuals and groups.
Training is an educational process that consists of improving employee performance through refining skills, and concepts, changing attitudes, and acquiring new material. Employee training that is both effective and efficient helps to build skills and knowledge, which eventually helps to grow a company.
Training is all about figuring out where you are now and where you want to go with your abilities in the future. Through training, people may acquire new information, new approaches, and refresh their current knowledge and talents. Along with all these trainees can also acquire knowledge of environmental management if their company adopts green hrm. As a result, there has been a major improvement, which contributes to overall workplace effectiveness.
The purpose of training is to leave an impression that lasts longer than the term of the training and to keep personnel up to date on new occurrences. Individuals and groups alike can benefit from training to improve their skillset.
Importance of training and development:
Training & Development is essential for company growth and success. It benefits both employers and employees of a company. If an employee is properly taught, he will become more efficient and productive.
The benefits of training can be summed up as:
1. Improves Morale of Employees-
Employees benefit from training in terms of job security and job satisfaction. The more the employee’s satisfaction and morale, the larger his contribution to organizational performance and the lower employee absenteeism and turnover.
2. Less Supervision-
A well-trained person will be familiar with the task and will require less supervision. As a result, there will be less time and effort wasted.
3. Fewer Accidents-
Errors are more likely to occur when people lack the information and abilities necessary to do a certain task. The better trained a person is, the less likely he or she is to have an accident on the job and the more competent the employee becomes.
4. Chances of Promotion-
During training, employees gain skills and efficiency. They are now more qualified for the promotion. They contribute to the success of the company.
5. Increased Productivity-
Employees’ efficiency and production improve as a result of training. Employees that have received proper training demonstrate both quantity and quality performance. Employees that are adequately taught waste less time, money, and resources.
Advantages of training and development:
Training and development have an associated cost. However, because it is advantageous in the long run for businesses, they ensure that personnel is trained on a regular basis.
Some advantages are:
- Assists employees in learning new skills and expanding their expertise.
- Leads to better efficiency and productivity of individuals as well as teams.
- Limitations in operations may be eliminated with proper training and development.
- To make the company leaner, new and enhanced job positions might be developed.
- Employees are kept engaged and their objectives, desires, and contribution levels are refreshed.
Even though there are several advantages, some drawbacks of training and development are mentioned below:
- It is an expensive operation that requires hiring the proper trainers and engaging employees in non-profit activities.
- Following the training and development session, there is a likelihood that the employee may resign.
Training and Development Process:
As skills, knowledge, and work quality must be continually enhanced, training and development are ongoing activities. Because businesses are growing at such a rapid speed, it is critical that companies focus on training their employees after analyzing and refining their overall personalities on a regular basis.
Steps for training and development processes are:
- Determine the need for training and development for individuals or teams
- Establish specific objectives & goals which need to be achieved
- Select the methods of training
- Conduct and implement the programs for employees
- Evaluate the output and performance post the training and development sessions.
- Keep monitoring and evaluating the performances and again see if more training is required.
Relation between training and development:
|Training is meant for operatives||Development is meant for executives|
|It is a reactive process||It is a proactive process|
|AIM: To develop additional skills||AIM: To develop the total personality|
|It is a short-term process||It is a continuous process|
|OBJECTIVE: To meet the present need of an employee||OBJECTIVE: To meet the future need of an employee|
|The initiative is taken by the management||The initiative is taken by an individual|
METHODS OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS
A large variety of methods of training are used in business. Even within one organization, different methods are used for training different people. All the methods are divided into two classifications:
A. On-the-job Training Methods:
- Job Rotation
- Job Instruction Technique
B. Off-the-Job Training Methods:
- Lectures and Conferences
- Vestibule Training
- Simulation Exercises
- Sensitivity Training
- Transactional Training
A. On-the-job training Methods:
In these approaches, new or inexperienced employees learn by observing peers or superiors at work and striving to mimic their behavior. Because the staff is always on the job, training is done on the same machinery, experience is gained on previously authorized standards, and, most crucially, the learner is learning while earning, these techniques are less expensive and less disruptive.
Some of the commonly used methods are:
Coaching is one-on-one training. It assists in quickly identifying and seeking to focus on weak spots. It also gives you the opportunity to put your academic knowledge into practice. The fundamental issue is that it reinforces pre-existing behaviors and attitudes.
The emphasis of this lesson is on improving one’s mindset. It is used for personnel in positions of authority. A senior insider is always on hand to mentor. It is also a one-on-one interaction, much like coaching.
- Job Rotation:
It is the process of preparing individuals for a series of related vocations. Rotation not only familiarises a person with different jobs but also relieves monotony and allows for the development of contacts with a wide range of people. Rotation must be done in a sensible manner.
- Job Instructional Technique (JIT):
It is a step-by-step (structured) on-the-job training method in which a suitable trainer
(a) prepares a trainee with an overview of the job, its purpose, and the results desired,
(b) demonstrates the task or the skill to the trainee,
(c) allows the trainee to show the demonstration on his or her own, and
(d) follows up to provide feedback and help.
The trainees have presented the learning material in written or by learning machines through a series called ‘frames’. This method is a valuable tool for all educators (teachers and trainers). It helps us:
a. To deliver step-by-step instruction;
b. To know when the learner has learned;
c. To be due diligent (in many workplace environments).
Apprenticeship is a method of educating a new generation of skilled practitioners. This kind of training is common in trades, crafts, and technical fields where proficiency takes a long time to achieve. The trainees work as apprentices to specialists for lengthy periods of time. They must work in close proximity to and directly under the supervision of their masters.
The purpose of this type of instruction is to turn pupils into all-around artisans. It is an expensive training approach. Furthermore, there is no guarantee that the taught individual will continue to work for the same company following training. Apprentices are paid in accordance with their apprenticeship contracts.
In this method, a superior educates a subordinate to be his or her understudy, similar to how an assistant to a manager or director trains a subordinate (in a film). The subordinate learn via experience and observation by assisting in the solving of day-to-day issues. The fundamental purpose is to prepare subordinates for full responsibility and duties.
B. Off-the-job Training Methods:
Off-the-job training methods are done independently from the job environment, study materials are provided, entire attention is placed on learning rather than performing, and there is freedom of speech. Important methods include:
- Lectures and Conferences:
Lectures and conferences are traditional and direct methods of instruction. Any training program is built on lectures and conferences. It’s a spoken presentation for a large audience. The lectures, on the other hand, must be motivating and intriguing to the students. The subject must be well-understood by the speaker. Lectures and seminars are the most often used instructional methods at colleges and universities.
- Vestibule Training:
Vestibule Training is off-the-job training that allows employees to learn new skills (learning). During vestibule training, workers are instructed in a prototype environment on specific jobs in a specific region of the factory. An attempt is made to recreate working conditions similar to those seen in a workplace.
Workers who have received training in such environments may be allocated to comparable tasks in the actual workshop. This enables workers to be instructed in the best working approaches and overcome their first apprehension.
This strategy was utilized during WWII to teach a large number of people in a short amount of time. It can also be used as an introduction to on-the-job training. The time span varies from a few days to a few weeks. It keeps trainees from making costly mistakes on the real machinery.
- Simulation Exercises:
A simulation is an artificial environment that is identical to the real thing. Management games, case studies, role-playing, and in-basket training are the four fundamental simulation approaches used for training.
(a) Management Games:
Properly designed games contribute to the development of thinking habits, analytical, logical, and reasoning abilities, the need for teamwork, time management, and making decisions in the lack of full knowledge, communication, and leadership traits. The use of management games can create new and imaginative stress-coping strategies.
Management games familiarise a candidate with the actual application of the subject. These games help with the practical application of management concepts. Several games are used to train general managers, middle management, and functional heads, including executive games and functional heads.
(b) Case Study:
Case studies are detailed examples that give information on the history of an issue while also presenting the core principle. Case Studies are trainee-centered activities that demonstrate theoretical ideas in a real-world setting.
A case study demonstrates the application of theoretical concepts, bridging the gap between theory and practice, encourages active learning, allows for the development of key skills such as communication, group work, and problem-solving, and increases trainees’ enjoyment of the topic and thus their desire to learn.
(c) Role Playing:
Each trainee assumes the role of a person impacted by a problem and investigates the consequences of the issues on human existence and/or the repercussions of human actions on the world around us from that person’s point of view.
It stresses the “real-world” aspect of science and encourages students to cope with complicated issues with no one “correct” answer and to apply abilities other than those required for a conventional research assignment.
Role-playing, in particular, gives students a great chance to learn not just the course content, but also other perspectives on it. The role-playing process includes defining objectives, selecting locations and roles, introducing the exercise, trainee preparation/research, role-playing, concluding the discussion, and assessing.
Role-playing can take several forms, including multiple role-playing, solitary role-playing, role rotation, and spontaneous role-playing.
(d) In-basket training:
In-basket training, also known as in-tray training, is a collection of business papers that may contain e-mail SMSs, reports, memoranda, and other items. The trainer is now asked to prioritize the decisions that must be taken quickly vs those that may be postponed.
- Sensitivity Training:
Laboratory training or T-group training are other terms for sensitivity training. This training is intended to increase people’s awareness of themselves and others by fostering social sensitivity and behavioral flexibility in them. It is the ability of a person to perceive what others are experiencing and think from their own perspective.
It displays information about his or her personal qualities, concerns, emotional issues, and similarities with other members of the group. It is the capacity to behave responsibly in light of what one knows.
The trainer for a group does not operate as a group leader or lecturer, instead seeking to clarify group procedures by utilizing incidences as examples to elucidate general concepts or offer feedback. Overall, group action is both the aim and the process.
- Transactional Analysis:
It provides students with a realistic and useful method of observing and interpreting the actions of others. In every social contact, there is a motive presented by one person and a reaction to that reason offered by another person.
A transaction is a two-person motivation-response exchange. The ego may do transactional analysis (a system of feelings accompanied by a related set of behaviors states of an individual).
It is a collection of recordings in the brain of an individual of behaviors, attitudes, and impulses which come to him/her naturally from his/her own understanding as a child. The characteristics of this ego are to be spontaneous, intense, unconfident, reliant, probing, anxious, etc.
Verbal clues that a person is operating from his child’s state are the use of words like “I guess”, “I suppose”, etc., and non-verbal clues like giggling, coyness, silence, attention-seeking, etc.
It is a collection of recordings in the brain of an individual of behaviors, attitudes, and impulses imposed on her in her childhood from various sources such as social, parents, friends, etc. The characteristics of this ego are to be overprotective, isolated, rigid, bossy, etc.
Verbal clues that a person is operating from its parent states are the use of words like, always, should, never, etc and non-verbal clues such as raising eyebrows, pointing an accusing finger at somebody, etc.
It is a collection of reality testing, rational behavior, decision-making, etc. A person in this ego state verifies and updates the reaction that she has received from the other two states. It is a shift from the taught and felt concepts to tested concepts. All of us show behavior from one ego state which is responded to by the other person from any of these three states.
The process of selecting people who are qualified to take on leadership responsibilities inside a company is known as succession planning. The technique ensures that business operations continue to function efficiently even after key individuals have retired, departed, or otherwise left the organization.
Succession Planning, also known as ‘Management Succession Planning,’ comprises coaching and developing prospective successors or people from within or outside a firm to take on crucial responsibilities in an organization through an organized review and training process.
It facilitates a smooth transfer of power in key leadership roles. If the successor is chosen from inside the firm, it will assist to motivate employees while also saving the company money and time that would have been spent searching for candidates from outside companies.
Process of Succession Planning:
Depending on the size of the organization and its goals, the strategic planning and process for succession planning can vary wildly. However, fundamentals include the following:
● Gaining the support of key stakeholders, including the CEO or executive director;
● Assessing positions (and individuals) and deciding which ones to focus on;
● Identifying high-potential employees for key leadership positions and creating learning and development plans tailored to a wider range of employees for more expansive succession plans;
● Assessing the extent to which internal candidates can fill roles (likely with development), who will be more familiar with company culture and processes, and which roles HR should look externally for the right talent pool;
●Creating effective learning and development processes that support the succession strategy, especially experiential development, such as job shadowing and cross-functional moves; and
●Determining which HR software will be used in support of the succession planning strategy and process.
Benefits of Succession Planning:
●Aligning strategic goals and human resources to enable the “right people in the right place at the right time” to achieve desired business results
●The development of qualified pools of candidates ready to fill critical or key positions
●Providing stability in leadership and other critical positions to sustain a high-performing public service and ensure the uninterrupted delivery of services and programs to New Brunswickers
●Identifying workforce renewal needs as a means of targeting necessary employee training and development
● Helping individuals realize their career plans and aspirations within the organization
● Improving employees’ ability to respond to changing environmental demands, and
● The opportunity for timely corporate knowledge transfer
Training and development is the process of learning a series of predetermined behaviors. It is the application of knowledge, skills, and expertise & gives people an awareness of rules & procedures to guide their behavior. It helps in bringing about positive change in the knowledge, skills & attitudes of employees.
Further, it is a procedure that attempts to enhance abilities or add to an employee’s existing level of knowledge in order to better equip him to accomplish his current work or to mold him to be fit for a higher position with greater responsibilities. It bridges the gap between what the employee possesses and what the job requires.
Human Resource Planning helps companies prepare for potential future challenges regarding the deployment of the right person at the right position which further prepares the ground for succession planning through which the ‘stars’ are constantly selected, trained, appraised, and helped so that when the time comes, such trained personnel can rapidly assume the duties and positions of their bosses or superiors as and when the situation arises.